LUMINOUS and its assortment of Airbrush Cosmetics, Airbrush Skincare, Airbrush Haircare, and Airbrush Tanning formulas are manufactured in the USA. They are non-toxic and have never been tested on animals. We continue to research and refine our procedures. We have developed our Airbrush Skincare formulas, including Vitamin C 15 percent, Niacinamide 10%, Retino1 percent, Hyaluronic Acid 22%, AHA 11%, and Vitamin B-5 are a pure vegan, cruelty-free formulas that contain clinically proven and highly concentrated ingredients. Our most recent SILK4-in-11 Airbrush Foundation is completely CLEAN.